PB is a type of stone-like substance found in a porcupine's body. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. There are undocumented claims that PBs have antioxidant activity and can treat cancers. Bezoars of a variety of species, especially porcupines, have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries and have high commercial value. Bezoars have been used to “treat” everything from fevers to diabetes and even cancer. Published by Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01204. In this study, bezoar a natural product obtained from Hystrix brachyura (porcupine) is revealed as potential anticancer agent. Many testimonies have claimed that porcupine dates can effectively cure dengue illness [ 9 ]; however, these claims lack scientific evidence and its relative mechanism of actions is still unknown. However, to date, medicinal values of porcupine bezoars lack scientific proof. A study published recently in the journal Global Ecology and Conservation tracked, for the first time, the online trade in old-world porcupines (those from the family Hystricidae in Asia and Africa). Tannic acid-rich porcupine bezoars induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells Peng-Nian Yew, Yau-Yan Lim, Wai-Leng Lee Pharmacognosy Magazine 2019 15(65):523-531 Porcupine dates are also known as porcupine bezoar, a phytobezoar that is formed from the partly digested plant materials or herbs in the stomach of Himalayan porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) [8, 10]. (b) A PB after being crushed consists of a mixture of rough powder and undigested fiber. Bezoar use even creeps into popular fiction: the stones are an ingredient for protective spells in the Harry Potter universe. The porcupines here eat unpolluted herbs that have high medicinal value causing the bezoars … to be of the rarest and highest value. Wide Acceptance & Usage of Porcupine as an All-Purpose Remedy (The researcher ignored “out of stock” listings and more dubious sites, such as one that claimed to have 2,000 tons of product on hand.). The price is very high and has collection, medicinal and stockpiling value.”, In many ways this isn’t surprising. Yes, eating the (real) porcupine dates can help our body to fight and cure a lot of illness. Porcupines have an important ecological role and highly developed social structures. Until the 18 th century a gold mounted bezoar was included in the crown jewels. Subscribe to The Revelator’s weekly newsletter. Overall, this study demonstrated that PB-A and PB-B possess potential in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects which are elicited through selective cytotoxic effect, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion and anti-angiogenesis. There are several varieties of bezoar, some of which have inorganic constituents and others organic. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. The price is very high and has collection, medicinal and stockpiling value.” In fact, most old-world porcupine species currently appear on the IUCN Red List as either “least concern” or “data deficient.” Only the Philippine porcupine (Hystrix pumila) is listed as “vulnerable to extinction.” None are currently protected by the Convention on Trade in Endangered Species. Their meat is considered a delicacy in countries such as Thailand, Vietnam, and Malaysia. Old Chinese medical text had recorded the used of Porcupine Bezoar. John R. Platt. However, limited scientific study has been carried out to verify these traditional claims. Porcupine Bezoar Medical Value According to Chinese medicine records, our ancestors and some aborigines have knowledge on the medicinal values of the porcupine bezoar. The mean adjusted price per gram was 151.8 USD, which is substantially lower than previously reported prices in the literature. Should that change? A lifetime of grasses, herbs, bark, and other vegetation can leave little bits of indigestible matter behind in a porcupine’s digestive tract, where they occasionally congeal into a hard ball called a bezoar. Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. The researchers examined e-commerce sites in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore for four months in 2019, where they found active for-sale listings for 443 individual bezoars and a large variety of powdered products. This paper calls for more study about this issue and additional conservation actions to protect porcupines. “The most valuable for the porcupine bezoars are procured from porcupines in the rainforest of Indonesia or Borneo. Objectives: Porcupine bezoar (PB) is a mass of undigested organic and inorganic materials formed within the gastrointestinal tract of the porcupine. Porcupine bezoar (PB) was reported to possess medicinal properties in old medical manuscript. PB is a type of stone-like substance found in a porcupine's body. Differential diagnosis However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers is still poorly studied and understood. Most listings were from sellers located in Indonesia, followed by sellers from Malaysia, and Singapore. Demand for bezoars isn’t the only threat porcupines face. External links. Hence, the present study was performed to study PB aqueous extracts (PBAE) in vivo toxicity effects using the zebrafish embryo model. Valuable stones: The trade in porcupine bezoars. The porcupines here eat unpolluted herbs that have high medicinal value causing the bezoars … to be of the rarest and highest value. Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, though it can occur in other locations. Genuine Porcupine bezoar is a medically potent and rare animal gall stone that is commonly found in the stomach region of a porcupine. Thus in this study, porcupine bezoar (PB) was evaluated to explore its ability as a safe anticancer agent. Tannic acid-rich porcupine bezoars induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human colon cancer cells Peng-Nian Yew, Yau-Yan Lim, Wai-Leng Lee Pharmacognosy Magazine 2019 15(65):523-531 Bezoars today don’t fetch quite that amount, but the study still found them selling for around $151 a gram — two and a half times the current price of gold — all for a useless clump of congealed, inedible food. A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, though it can occur in other locations. Some bezoars … August 4, 2020. ‹ Be wary of “stem cell” scams However, its toxicity profile has never been thoroughly investigated to verify its safety nature. In the late 15 th century, Eastern porcupine bezoars were considered especially valuable 4. Photo: Jason Thompson (CC BY 2.0), either “least concern” or “data deficient.”. However, limited scientific studies have been performed to verify its anticancer potential to substantiate its traditional claims in the treatment of cancers. There are undocumented claims that PBs have antioxidant activity and can treat cancers. "Pilot study of temporary controllable gastric pseudobezoars for dynamic non-invasive gastric volume ... Peter, "The Trade, Forgery and Medicinal Use of Porcupine Bezoars in the Early Modern Period (c.1500–1750)", ed. © 2020 The Author(s). Current trade levels are likely unsustainable and we predict that porcupine species may become threatened in the future should current trade levels continue. Porcupine bezoar (PB) was reported to possess medicinal properties in old medical manuscript. Premodern medicine considered bezoars a special kind of stone with antidote properties. The bezoar may be outlined by fluid in the proximally dilated small bowel, and the mass may be mottled owing to air trapped within it. Porcupine bezoars (phytobezoars) are concretions of undigested plants material that accumulate and calcified in the form of stone within the gastrointestinal tract of porcupine . (a) PB with a Malaysian 50 sen coin and scale as size reference. Some ancient pharmacopoeias list 'unicorn horns' as an acceptable alternative if a bezoar is not available. History and etymology. Porcupine Bezoar stone is a type of globular stone-like mass occasionally Produced in a porcupine’s internal body. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. Porcupine bezoars (PBs) are masses of undigested calcareous concretions formed within the gastrointestinal tract. PB has been claimed The price is very high and has collection, medicinal and stockpiling value." This combined method of EP and PBE revealed the process inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell to 8.48%. In present study, porcupine bezoar was tested to observe its ability in inhibiting cell growth of cancer cell (A549) and its cytotoxicity on Normal Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell (HGF-1). Based on the weight of the powders, and the assumption that they might have contained other ingredients, the researchers estimate this translated to at least 680 and as many as 1,300 bezoars. Please save your money and spare the poor porcupines. Old-world porcupines (Order: Rodentia Family: Hystricidae) face many threats, including an increasing demand for their different body parts such as meat, quills, hairs and bezoars. However, limited scientific study has been carried out to verify these traditional claims. This combined method of EP and PBE revealed the process inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell to 8.48%. This bezoar has been a myth to the locals. The study quotes one popular website: “The most valuable for the porcupine bezoars are procured from … the rainforest of Indonesia or Borneo. The authors warn that “current trade levels are likely unsustainable, and we predict that porcupine species may become threatened in the future should current trade levels continue.”, And while some porcupines are farmed, this study indicates pressure on wild porcupines, which also face threats from habitat destruction and the bushmeat trade, as well as persecution as agricultural pests. Additionally, porcupine bezoar was also known as lifesaver and used by patients with terminal illness. Porcupine bezoars (PBs) are masses of undigested calcareous concretions formed within the gastrointestinal tract. PB is a mass of indigestible foreign material which could be undigested organic or inorganic material that accumulate and conglomerate in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach. Hence, in this study, porcupine bezoar (PB) aqueous extract was evaluated for its potential as a safe anticancer agent. It suggests a need to protect certain populations which fetch higher prices due to their purported purity. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. The main focus of this review paper is on the porcupine bezoar … New research indicates a growing online trade in porcupine bezoars, a ball of inedible material that sometimes gathers in their digestive tracks. A porcupine’s diet is wide, varied, and a little hard to digest. Porcupine Bezoar Extract (PBE) has been previously described to possess diverse medicinal properties. Until the 18 th century a gold mounted bezoar was included in the crown jewels. A bezoar is a mass found trapped in the gastrointestinal system, ... especially for their use in early modern pharmacy and the study of animal health. Currently the various species enjoy some national-level protection but precious little on the international level, because they’re still perceived as relatively common. An initiative of the Center for Biological Diversity. * I speak from my own experience. The experiment suggests that the best concentration for Porcupine Bezoar Extract (PBE) was at 80.0ug/ml. Demand for bezoars appears to have increased substantially in recent years. Hence, in this study, porcupine bezoar (PB) aqueous extract was evaluated for its potential as a safe anticancer agent. Porcupine bezoar was found in the gastrointestinal tract of porcupine and made up of indigestible plant matters. Hence, … The medicinal claims are equally fiction: there doesn’t appear to be any veracity to bezoar use to treat illnesses. Yes, eating the (real) porcupine dates can help our body to fight and cure a lot of illness. Bezoar literally means antidote in Persian language. While the authors acknowledge the limitations caused by their study’s short time frame and their inability to examine and verify the nature of the bezoars (some of which could have come from other animals or been counterfeits), they still uncovered an alarming level of trade. The herb that they seek when sick contains certain chemical compounds that help fight the damages brought by toxins as well as facilitate healing. The term has both a modern (medical, scientific) and a traditional usage. Bezoar (Imaging Study Findings) A bezoar is a tightly packed collection of partially digested or undigested material that most commonly occurs in the stomach. A lifetime of grasses, herbs, bark and other vegetation can leave little bits of indigestible matter behind in a porcupine’s digestive tract, where they occasionally congeal into a hard ball called a bezoar. A porcupine date bezoar is a digestive bezoar, slowly created from a biological mass of ingested food trapped inside the porcupine’s internal digestive tract. Bezoar; Bezoar stones were ... especially for their use in early modern pharmacy and the study of animal health. For centuries people have valued these rare “stones” or “dates,” as they’re sometimes called, for their purported healing abilities. The porcupines here eat … It was just over a year ago that President Trump announced, “The golden era of American energy is now underway,” saying that his policies focused on exploiting oil, … New research indicates a growing online trade in porcupine bezoars — a ball of inedible material that sometimes gathers in their digestive tracks. Thus in this study, porcupine bezoar (PB) was evaluated to explore its ability as a safe anticancer agent. Porcupine bezoar (PB) has been previously reported to possess various medicinal properties. Materials and Methods . Previous research has suggested that bezoars only grow in an incidentally small portion of the porcupine population, so the total number of animals killed to accumulate that quantity for sale could conceivably have been in the tens of thousands. Porcupine bezoars (PBs) are masses of undigested calcareous concretions formed within the gastrointestinal tract. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. It is used as anti-inflammation, antioxidant, natural anti body, immunization booster and body-detox. The study quotes one popular website: “The most valuable for the porcupine bezoars are procured from … the rainforest of Indonesia or Borneo. However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers is still poorly studied and understood. We found 121 listings (excluding listings advertising supply ability instead of specific bezoars) advertising approximately 680–1332 bezoars and likely representing ten-fold as many porcupines within our three month study period. The porcupines here eat unpolluted herbs that have high medicinal value causing the bezoars produced here to be of the rarest and highest value. The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy notes that consumption of unripened persimmons has been identified as causing epidemics of intestinal bezoars, and that up to 90% of bezoars that occur from eating too much of the fruit require surgery for removal. IEEE Xplore, delivering full text access to the world's highest quality technical literature in engineering and technology. Many testimonies have claimed that porcupine dates can effectively cure dengue illness [ 9 ]; however, these claims lack scientific evidence and its relative mechanism of actions is still unknown. A549 cells morphology was observed after treated with bezoars for 72 hours. It belongs to the category of mystical and magical belief in Alternatives to Medicine. In Vitro Evaluation of Porcupine Bezoar Extracts as Anticancer Agent on A549 -A Preliminary Study Firus Khan AY 1, Mohd Nasir MH 2, Tara Jalal 1, Razali S 1, Hassan H 1, Asuhaimi FA 1 and Wahab RA 1 * 1 Department of Biomedical Science, International Islamic University, Malaysia. Porcupine Bezoar Medicinal Values According to Chinese medicine records, in tradition, Porcupine Bezoar had been used as medicine by hill tribes in Southern China and South-East Asia. The study quotes one popular website: “The most valuable for the porcupine bezoars are procured from … the rainforest of Indonesia or Borneo. A Malayan porcupine photographed at Kaeng Krachan National Park, Phetchaburi, Thailand. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. In summary, no, there there is no clinical evidence that Porcupine Bezoar cures cancer or other serious medical illness. And since the study didn’t look at the e-commerce sites every day, it probably uncovered only a portion of the total trade. However, its potential as an anticancer agent against human cancers is still poorly studied and understood. The study was conducted at a 68‐turbine wind farm that was built in the early 2000s by Statkraft, a ... Heinrich and her colleagues monitored listings of porcupine bezoars offered for sale on selected online platforms, including Alibaba and the popular social media app Instagram, in three Southeast Asian countries. In present study, porcupine bezoar was tested to observe its ability in inhibiting cell growth of cancer cell (A549) and its cytotoxicity on Normal Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell (HGF-1). In present/current clinical studies/study, porcupine bezoar dates was/are thoroughly/intensively tested in laboratory/controlled environment to observe/document its efficacy/ability in inhibiting/suppressing cellular/cell multiplication/growth of cancer/cancerous cell (A549) and its cytotoxicity on Normal Human Gingival Fibroblast Cell (HGF-1). A porcupine’s diet is wide, varied, and a little hard to digest. The price is very high and has collection, medicinal and stockpiling value”. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. However, its potential as anticancer agent on human lung cancer cells (A549) is not yet studied. There are undocumented claims that PBs have antioxidant activity and can treat cancers. In … The porcupines here eat unpolluted herbs that have high medicinal value causing the bezoars … to be of the rarest and highest value. Porcupine bezoars (PBs) are masses of undigested calcareous concretions formed within the gastrointestinal tract. 2. A review on the importance of bezoar has revealed that the oriental bezoars found in monkeys and porcupines (Lapis bezoar orientalis) were considered the most expensive [12–14]. And technology as a safe anticancer agent with antidote properties Hystrix brachyura ) gastrointestinal tract pharmacopoeias... 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